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The Formulas We Use
Regarding Concrete Temperature
In calculating the Dry Factor, the concrete temperature is assumed to be 68°F when the air temperature is below 64.4°F. When the air temperature is at or above 64.4°F, the concrete temperature is assumed to be the same as the air temperature.
Evaporation Rate Formula
The following equation from a 1998 ACI Materials Journal paper* is used to predict evaporation rates:
E = (Tc2.5 – rTa2.5)(1 + 0.4V ) × 10–6
E = 5([Tc – 18]2.5 – r[Ta + 18]2.5)(V + 4) × 10–6
E = evaporation rate, lb/ft2/h (kg/m2/h)
Tc = concrete temperature, °F (°C)
Ta = air temperature, °F (°C)
r = (Relative Humidity(%))/100
V = Wind velocity, mph (kph)
* Uno, P.J., “Plastic Shrinkage Cracking and Evaporation Formulas,” ACI Materials Journal, V. 95, No. 4, July-Aug. 1998, pp. 365-375.
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Cold Weather Alert
ACI specifications and procedures will help you achieve cold weather concrete that will produce a strong, durable structure. The Standard Specification for Cold Weather Concreting (306R-88), designed to be used in its entirety by reference in project specifications, will assist the engineer / architect in properly choosing and specifying the necessary, mandatory and optional requirements for the project specification. The specification covers preparations prior to placement of concrete as well as temperature of concrete and protection of concrete after placing.
Curing measures, in general, are specified in ACI 308R-01. Curing measures directed toward the maintenance of satisfactory concrete temperature under specific environmental conditions are addressed in greater detail by Committees 305 and 306 on Hot and Cold Weather Concreting, respectively, and by ACI Committees 301 and 318.
The term curing is frequently used to describe the process by which hydraulic-cement concrete matures and develops hardened properties over time as a result of the continued hydration of the cement in the presence of sufficient water and heat. While all concrete cures to varying levels of maturity with time, the rate at which this development takes place depends on the natural environment surrounding the concrete, and the measures taken to modify this environment by limiting the loss of water, heat, or both, from the concrete, or by externally providing moisture and heat.
The word curing is also used to describe the action taken to maintain moisture and temperature conditions in a freshly placed cementitious mixture to allow hydraulic-cement hydration and, if applicable, pozzolanic reactions to occur so that the potential properties of the mixture may develop.
Moderate and Severe Drying Conditions
ACI 305R-99 "Hot Weather Concreting"
Concrete mixed, transported, and placed under conditions of high temperature, low humidity, or wind requires an understanding of the effects such environmental factors have on concrete properties and construction operations. When these factors are understood, measures can be taken to eliminate or minimize undesirable effects. The most serious difficulties are experienced in weather and types of construction that are unusual in the experience of those performing the work.
This committee report defines hot weather, lists possible unfavosrable effects, and presents practices intended to minimize them. Among these practices are such important measures as pre-cooling ingredients, consideration of concrete temperature as placed length of haul, facilities for handling concrete at the site, and special batching, placing, and curing techniques.
ACI 308R-01 "Standard Specification for Curing concrete"
This specification provides requirements for alternative methods for curing concrete. These alternatives are not necessarily equal in effectiveness, cost, effect on project schedule, or impact on other aspects of the project. To use this specification, the Architect/Engineer must not only include this document by reference in the project specifications, but must also identify the concrete elements that are to be cured, and must choose the method to be used to cure those elements.
This specification has installed default settings that may or may not be applicable to a specific project. The Architect/Engineer is to use the Checklists included in this specification to customize the specification to a specific project. Checklists are provided in this document to guide the Architect/Engineer through these selection processes, and the selections must be included in the project specification.
Alternatively, the Architect/Engineer may allow the contractor the option of using one or more of a number of permissible curing methods, subject to review and approval. Further, the Architect/Engineer must determine whether deliberate curing efforts must or may terminate after a predetermined time has elapsed, or only after specified concrete properties have developed.
Weather Prediction for weatherAPP
To determine concrete pouring conditions, the weatherAPP averages the daytime, predictions for air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity for the searched location.
The forecasts are provided by World Weather Online, which has developed their own weather forecasting model which can deliver reliable and accurate weather information for any geo-point in the world. This weather model is run along with other metrological models to compare and deliver accurate weather forecasts. Data is also derived from from renowned establishments like European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, World Meteorological Organization, NASA weather satellite imagery, NOAA GFS2 model and JMA model.
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Holcim (US) Inc. is one of the largest manufacturers and suppliers of cement and mineral components in the United States.Supplies over 15 million metric tons of cement and related materials annually
Earned revenues of approximately $1.5 billion in 2006
Employs approximately 2,200 workers
Opened a four-million-ton capacity plant in Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri in 2009
Increased its cement manufacturing capabilities by over 3.5 million metric tons through construction of new manufacturing plants at sites in Devil's Slide, Utah; Midlothian, Texas; Florence, Colorado; and Holly Hill, South Carolina
Expanded its mineral components supply capabilities through the completion of its GranCem cement production facility near Birmingham, Alabama
Our customers have relied on Holcim for nearly a century to help them design and build better communities with innovative solutions that deliver structural integrity and eco-efficiency. Today, Holcim is one of the world's leading suppliers of cement and aggregates (crushed stone, gravel and sand) as well as ready-mix concrete and asphalt.
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